Area: 9, 976, 139 sq km
Population: 27, 296, 859
Other big towns: Montreal, Toronto, Calgary, Winnipeg…
Currency: the Canadian dollar
Languages: English, French
Head of state: Britain’s Queen- Elisabeth II
Canada is a dominion of the United Kingdom. The head of state is the British queen, Elisabeth II. Canada is a federal state and consists of ten provinces and two territories. The highest legislative authority belongs to the federal parliament.
|Prince Edward Island||Charlottetown|
The territories and their capitals: the Northwest Territories (Yellowknife
Yukon Territory (Whitehorse)
Canada is surrounded by two big oceans. To the east is the Atlantic Ocean and to the west is the Pacific Ocean. Canada has borders only with the USA. Canada is on the largest part of North American continent.
The Canadian coasts are surrounded by many islands. The joint area of these islands is one sixth of the area of Canada. The Great Lakes are is very important and famous as well as the Mackenzie River and the St. Lawrence River.
Canada consists of several geographical regions differing in their geological age. The Cordillera region is in the west and is made up of the Rocky Mountains, the Coast Mountains, and the Appalachian mountains. This zone also occupies a small area at the south frontier. The Pacific coast region is on the Pacific side in the west. It includes the coast of British Columbia and Vancouver Island. The Prairies is a region which consists of the area in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. This area is rich in deposits of gas, oil and potash. The Canadian Shield region includes Hudson Bay. This area has deposits of some minerals like gold, silver, zinc, cooper and uranium. The Great Lakes region includes many big lakes. These lakes are on the border with the USA. The lakes are: Lake Superior, Lake Ontario, Great Slave Lake, Lake Winnipeg, Lake Erie, and Great Bear Lake. The Atlantic Provinces are also called the Appalachian Region. It consists of provinces like Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland. The Arctic area is inaccessible because the climate is very rough. This is the coldest part of Canada. Summer is very short and winter is very long.
The first people who arrived in Canada were from Asia. This settling took place about 30, 000 years ago. The Vikings discovered Canada more than a thousand years ago. John Cabot stepped on the American continent one year before Christopher Columbus did (1492). He was sent by the English King Henry VII. to search for a way to Japan and India. Later, French fishermen from Brittany and Normandy were visiting the waters near Newfoundland. The first of the discoverers who landed in Canada was Jacques Cartier. He carried out trips for gold as well as travels to East India and China. This newly discovered country was called after the Indian word “kannata”, and became a French colony known as New France. Canada also became as English colony. England tried to push France out of Canada. Between 1756-1763, a big fight for Canada culminated. This fight was between France and Great Britain. In 1763, Canada was divided by the Treaty of Paris into Upper Canada and Lower Canada. In 1867, the Dominion of Canada was established. During the prewar time, Canada was a prosperous country with a good economy. After World War II., Canada ´s economy continued to expand.
Canada has many climatic zones. In the North, the climate is very severe and rough. The climatic conditions have a big influence on settlement. In the North and in areas with cold climate, the population density is very low. Most people live in the southern part of Canada in big cities.
A big part of the population consists of immigrants from Europe (40 % are British ancestors, 30 % are French ancestors, and 20 % are German ancestors). The remainder consists of Italians, Eskimos, and Indians.
The Canadian people are divided into many churches and sects. The most powerful church is the Roman Catholic Church.
Canada is rich in mineral resources. These are especially gold, oil and natural gas. Industry in Canada is well developed. The leading industrial branch is the machine building industry. Other important branches are petrochemicals, forestry, paper making, etc. Agricultural products are tobacco, fruits, vegetables, oats, and other sturdy crops.