Little is known about people inhabiting the British Isles in the pre-Celtic period (before 800 BC) Some monuments built by them have been preserved (zachovat se), such as Stonehenge, erected some time before 1000 BC.
The first Celtic tribes are believed to have come to the British Isles between 800 & 700 BC. Two centuries later, they were followed by the Brythons or ancient Britons after whom the country was called Britain.
The first Roman invasion was led by Julius Caesar in 55 BC., but Britain was not conquered until some 90 years later, under Emperor Claudius, in 43 AD. (Anno Domini) Although the Roman occupation of Britain lasted nearly 400 years, its effects were few. (malý) The people did not adopt the Latin language and so Latin did not displace (vytlačit) Celtic.
In the middle of the 5th century, three Germanic tribes – The Angles, Saxons and Jutes invaded (invaze) Britain from the continent. From the 8th century, the Anglo-Saxons had to face Scandinavian invaders – the Danes and the Norsemen sometimes referred to as Vikings –who occupied parts of Britain and made some permanent settlements. The Scandinavian invasions continued till the 11th century. The Anglo-Saxon period can be characterized as a period of transition from a tribal (kmenový) to a feudal organization of society.
The period of feudalism started around 1066 and lasted into the 15th century. In this period, the modern English nation and language came into being. It was a period of struggle (boje) for power between kings and between powerful nobles (šlechta), a period of frequent wars, bloodshed (krveprolití), and suffering (utrpení). It was also a period in which the development of the wool trade and the early decline (sestup) of feudalism prepared the way for England’s rise (růst) as a world power.