Zpět na výpis látekTravelling Through BritainAngličtina

England During the Rose Wars to This Time

THE CELTS: Between the 6th and the 3rd centuries BC, the British Isles were invaded by Celtic tribes which settled in southern England. They originally came from central Europe. Their culture goes back to about 1200 BC. Between 500 and 250 BC, they were the most powerful people north of the Alps. Originally they were pagan with priests called Druids. They later converted to Christianity. It was Celtic missionaries who spread the Christian religion throughout Scotland and Northern England. The Celts were famous artists known for their sophisticated designs, which are found in their elaborate jewelry, decorated crosses, and illuminated manuscripts.

THE ROMANS: In AD 43, the Romans invaded southern Britain, which became a Roman colony called Britannia. The Romans set up their capital in London and built major cities such as Bath, Chester, and York. The cities contained beautiful buildings, squares, and public baths. Fine villas were built for Celtic aristocrats who accepted Roman rule. The Roman invasion was not completely peaceful. In AD 60, the Iceni, a tribe led by Queen Boudicca, destroyed 3 cities including London. The Romans stopped the rebellion brutally and Boudicca killed herself. The tribes of Scotland never completely surrendered to the Romans. As a result, in AD 122, Emperor Hadrian built a long wall to defend the border between England and Scotland. Hadrian’s Wall was overrun several times by Scottish tribes and was finally abandoned in AD 383. By then, the Roman Empire was collapsing and the Roman legions had left Britain to fight tribes on the continent.

THE SAXONS, JUTES AND ANGLES: From about AD 350, Germanic tribes began invading south-east England. The tribes came from what is now northern Germany, Holland, and Denmark. The first to come were the Saxons, joined later by the Jutes and the Angles. The Angles gave England its name. Britain had the protection of only a few Roman legions. The native people couldn’t stop the new enemy, known as the Anglo-Saxons. The Celts fled to the north and west taking their ancient arts and languages with them. Celtic languages have disappeared from most of Europe, but are still spoken in parts of Wales, Ireland, and Scotland. Celtic Christians later returned to England from Scotland and Ireland as missionaries. The Anglo-Saxons in southern England were converted to Christianity following the arrival of Saint Augustine of Rome in AD 597. As Christianity spread, churches and monasteries were built all over England.

THE VIKINGS: In about AD 790, the Vikings started invading England. The Norsemen, who came from Norway, mainly settled in Scotland and Ireland. The north and east of England were settled by the Danes. The Vikings were excellent traders and navigators. They traded with silk and furs as far as Russia. In 1016, England became part of the Scandinavian empire under King Cnut. In 1066, England was again facing invasion from the north and the south. In September, King Harold II marched north to defeat his half-brother, the king of Norway, at the battle of Stamford Bridge. Just 3 weeks later, he himself was defeated and killed at Hastings by another invader of Viking origin, William, Duke of Normandy, form northern France. THE NORMANS: The Duke of Normandy, known as William the Conqueror, became king of England, establishing a new Anglo-Norman state. England became a strong, centralized country under military rule. Castles appeared all over England to enforce Norman rule. England has never been invaded since 1066. William was a harsh ruler: he destroyed many villages to make sure the English people did not rebel. Norman power was absolute and the language of the new rulers, Norman-French, has had a lasting effect on English.

THE HUNDRED YEARS‘ WAR (1337 - 1453): Since the battle of Hastings in 1066, the relationship between England and France was bad. In 1154, England acquired the Aquitaine and the defense of this country was the reason why Edward III. attacked France in 1337. This war lasted for more than 100 years, but there were many periods of truce during these years. The English won the majority of the battles but they weren’t able to keep such a large area and after the exhaustion of both sides, the war fell flat. Four convincing victories brought the English the feeling that they were the winners of this war. However, during the last 40 years, England lost all of its gained domains except Calais. The English victorious wars were: in 1340 when the English knocked down the French in the marine battle near Flander coast and they became lords in the Lamanche Channel, in 1346 when in the battle of Crecy, English archers cut down the attacking French cavalry, in 1356 when the battle of Poitiers [poate] took place and the French king John II. was arrested, and in1415 when English forces of only 600 men, lead by king Henry V., knocked down the French army of 25 000 in the battle of Azincourt.

14 – 16TH CENTURY: The 14th century was disastrous for Britain as well as for most of Europe, because of the effect of the wars and plagues. Probably one third of Europe’s population died of the plague. Britain and France suffered too, from the damages of war. In the 1330s, England began a long struggle against the French crown. England had the additional burden of fighting the Scots, and maintaining control over Ireland and Wales, both of which were trying to overthrow English rule. Edward III declared war on France in 1337. He claimed the right to the French crown. It was enough reason for starting a war. The war, later called „the Hundred Year’s War“, didn’t end until 1453 and resulted in the loss of all the possessions of the English kings in France except for Calais. England had lost a war and was ruled by a mentally ill king (Henry VI) who was bad at choosing advisors. The nobles began to ask questions about who should be ruling the country. The wars that broke out in 1453 were a dynastic struggle for the possession of the Crown. As the badge of the House of Lancaster was a red rose and that of the House of York was a white rose, the brutal contest between them became known as „the War of the Roses“. The wars came to an end when Richard III., the last king of the House of York, was killed in the Battle of Boshworth Field in 1485. To affirm the peace between the two families, Henry Tudor, the victor of the Battle of Boshworth, married Elizabeth the Princess of York. He was crowned Henry VII., and started the greatest of the royal lines in England. The most famous rulers of the House of Tudor were Henry VIII. and Elizabeth I. Henry VIII. (1491 - 1547) came to the throne in 1509. As king of an island nation, Henry understood the importance of ships. During his reign, England built the biggest and most powerful navy the world had ever seen. One of his greatest ships was The Mary Rose, which was named after his sister. Henry wanted a son to succeed him as king. Catherine of Aragon (the mother of the future queen Mary I) couldn’t give him a son. Henry asked the Pope to annul his marriage, but he refused. All over Europe, people were already questioning the authority of the Pope. Henry decided to establish his own church – the Church of England. It became the first official Protestant Church. Henry made himself the head of the Church and divorced Catherine. He had 5 more wives after Catherine – Anne Boleyn (the mother of the future queen Elizabeth I) who was beheaded, Jane Seymour who had a child (Edward) and died, Anne of Cleves whom he divorced, Catherine Howard whom he had beheaded, and Catherine Parr who outlived him.

Přidal: Dan_T 4. 12. 2009
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Zpět na výpis látekTravelling Through BritainAngličtina