British history

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on British Isles. It is composed of the historical countries - England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

The first people, who lived on the British Isles was Neolithic people we know very little about their culture but they probably built Stonehenge.

In about 1200 B. C. the Celts came from Spain and France.

The first Romans came to the British Isles in 55 BC led by Julius Caesar. The Romans called the country Albion at first according to the cliffs on south her coast. In 43 A. D. the Romans invaded Britain. They had to fight with the tribe Iceni but the Iceni were suppressed brutally. Emperor Hadrian built the wall near the northern border against barbarian tribes. The Romans build also the straight roads, defensive walls: Hadrian Wall and the towns: London, York or Cardiff.

When the Romans left Britain Germanic tribes came there - for example the Angles, Jutes and the Saxos.

In 9th century the Vikings invaded and occupied the east and south of England.

In 1066 William the Conqueror defeated Harold II at battle of Hastings and he became king of Britain.

The next important king was Henry VIII. He built the biggest and most powerful navy and he established his own church. During his reign Wales was brought into legal union with England. He had six waves but only one outlived him.

His daughters Elizabeth I become one of the greatest monarchs of England. She get to the throne in 1558. Her enemies tried several times to kill her but they failed. During Elizabeth’s reign the seas were dominated by British ships. Her corsairs stole much gold from the Spanish ships. Then they defeated Spanish Armada included 130 ships in the Sea battle in the English Channel.

Because in 1694 King William established the Bank of England, there was the Industrial revolution as the first on the world.

From 1837 the Queen Victoria reined there. His Husband Prince Albert was supporter of the science ant the arts.

The English built a colony in North America. They carried the slaves to work from Africa and English in America became rich. But later Americans defeated them in War of Independence. But United Kingdom had the more colonies in America but also in India, Australia and Africa.

After World War II Britain lost the all colonies and its importance has fallen.

But the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is very important powerful even today.




Přidal: Tonda 4. 3. 2012
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